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Darren Johnson

  • Title: Professor
  • Additional Title: Inorganic, Organic, Supramolecular, & Materials Chemistry
  • Phone: (541) 346-1695
  • Office: 431 LISB
  • Affiliated Departments: Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry
  • Website: Website

Education

Center for Sustainable Materials Chemistry

B.S., University of Texas, Austin, 1996. Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley, 2000 (Kenneth N. Raymond). Postdoctoral: The Scripps Research Institute, 2001-03 (Julius Rebek, Jr.). Honors and Awards: Phi Beta Kappa; NIH Postdoctoral Fellow, 2002-03; NSF CAREER Award, 2006; Research Corporation Cottrell Scholar Award, 2006; University of Oregon Fund for Faculty Members Excellence Award, 2012. At Oregon since 2003.

Research

Research in the group explores problems in coordination chemistry and organic synthesis using the relatively new field of supramolecular chemistry as a tool. Research projects include developing specific metal chelators for a variety of toxic and environmentally hazardous metals; investigating the synthesis and applications of inorganic cluster compounds; and using multiple weak interactions within small molecule receptors to target environmentally and biologically relevant substrates. The research in the group spans a diverse range of disciplines: organic synthesis of ligands and receptors; inorganic chemistry of supramolecular coordination complexes and inorganic clusters; computer modeling and ligand design; analytical chemistry of metal ion extraction; solution thermodynamics and physical organic chemistry of host-guest and metal-ligand complexes; and materials science of supramolecular assemblies and thin film semiconductors. The characterization of these nanoscale molecules requires investigation by X-ray crystallography, calorimetry, multidimensional NMR techniques, and other spectroscopic methods.

I. Supramolecular Main Group Chemistry and Specific Metal Chelation
We are elaborating a design strategy for forming coordination capsules comprised of toxic metal ions or main group elements (such as arsenic, antimony, or mercury). We have recently shown that ligand H2L binds arsenic(III) within a very stable As2L3 cage. Surprisingly, two As2L2Cl2 macrocycles were also isolated as intermediates in the reaction. Applications in metal remediation, both environmental and medical, are envisioned by designing the ligands to target a specific toxic or hazardous metal ion. Furthermore, incorporating these nanoscale coordination capsules into extended solid-state structures leads to applications in materials science, and the novel cavity environments in these capsules will lead to unusual host-guest properties.

II. Inorganic Nanoclusters
Developing predictive design strategies to prepare inorganic cluster compounds has attracted much research interest, due in part to the potential applications of these novel materials. We have developed an unusual new synthetic strategy for preparing discrete inorganic clusters, and we have used this strategy to prepare the first crystalline example of an inorganic tridecameric Ga hydroxide cluster (Ga13, see figure). A slightly altered facile synthetic methodology also yields the analogous tridecameric aluminum complex and a series of mixed Ga/In tridecameric clusters in preparative scales within one to two weeks. We are currently exploring the use of these inorganic aggregates as synthons for the generation of a wider range of particles and assemblies via exchange of the peripheral water ligands with appropriate organic ligands.  In a collaboration with Prof. Douglas A. Keszler at Oregon State University, we are exploring the use of these clusters as solution precursors to prepare thin film transistor devices (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 9484-9486).

III. Interactions between Anions and Aromatic Rings
A recent area of study in the lab seeks to understand the how anions interact with electron-deficient aromatic rings. The related “cation-π” interaction is well-documented, but only recently has the more counter-intuitive interaction between anions and aromatic rings become appreciated. We have shown in a model system that the presence of an electron-deficient pentafluorophenyl ring enhances halide binding in solution. We have also highlighted in the solid state and in silico our observations that anions can form as many as four different attractive interactions with electron-deficient aromatic rings (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 48-58). Recently, we have used this knowledge to develop a design strategy for synthesizing tripodal anion receptors that utilize only electron-deficient aromatic rings to bind anions in solution. We seek to understand this interaction in greater detail by improving receptor design and developing new electron-deficient arenes to bind anions. Will this emerging interaction motif provide new anion binding selectivities in solution? Can new sensors and remediation materials be prepared that use these interactions to target anionic contaminants in the environment?  We also have begun a new collaboration with Prof. Michael M. Haley’s lab at UO investigating the design and synthesis of modular receptors for anions based off of inherently fluorescent arylethynyl cores.

Publications

I. Supramolecular Main Group Chemistry and Specific Metal Chelation
Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Supramolecular Transmetallation Leads to an Unusual Self-Assembled P2L3 Cryptand“ Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 1248-1251.

Pitt, M. A.; Zakharov, L. N.; Vanka, K.; Thompson, W. H.; Laird, B. B.; Johnson, D. W. “Multiple Weak Supramolecular Interactions Stabilize a Surprisingly ‘Twisted’ As2L3 Assembly” Chem. Commun. 2008, 33, 3936-3938.

Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.;  Fontenot, S. A.; Pitt, M. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Host-Guest Interactions in a Series of Self-Assembled As2L2Cl2 Macrocycles” Dalton Trans. 2008, 3447-3453.

Pitt, M. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Main Group Supramolecular Chemistry” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2007, 36, 1441-1453.

Carter, T. G.; Rather Healey, E.; Pitt, M. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Secondary Arsenic-Oxygen Interactions in Arsenic-Thiolate Coordination Complexes” Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 9634-9636.

Vickaryous, W. J.; Herges, R.; Johnson, D. W. “Arsenic-π Interactions Stabilize a Self-Assembled As2L3 Supramolecular Complex“ Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 200443, 5831-5833.

II. Inorganic Nanoclusters
Mensinger, Z. L.; Gatlin, J. T.; Meyers, S. T.; Zakharov, L. N.; Keszler, D. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Synthesis of Heterometallic Group 13 Nanoclusters and Inks for Oxide Thin-Film Transistors“ Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 9484-9486.

Gatlin, J. T.; Mensinger, Z. L.; Zakharov, L. N.; MacInnes, D.; Johnson, D. W. “Facile Synthesis of the Tridecameric Al13 Nanocluster Al133-OH)62-OH)18(H2O)24(NO3)15” Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 1267-1269.

Rather, E.; Gatlin, J. T.; Nixon, P. G.; Tsukamoto, T.; Kravtsov, V.; Johnson, D. W. “A Simple Organic Reaction Mediates the Crystallization of the Inorganic Nanocluster [Ga133-OH)62-OH)18(H2O)24](NO3)< sub>15” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3242-3243. (Highlighted inEditor’s Choice in Science, 2005, 307, 1377.)

III. Interactions between Anions and Aromatic Rings
Berryman, O.B.; Sather, A. C.; Hay, B. P.; Meisner, J. S.; Johnson, D. W. “Solution Phase Measurement of Both Weak σ and C-H•••X– Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Synthetic Anion Receptors” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008,130, 10895-10897.

Berryman, O.B.; Johnson II, C. A.; Zakharov, L. N.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. “Water and Hydrogen Halides Serve the Same Structural Role in a Series of Hydrogen Bonded Dimers: 2,6-Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine Sulfonamides as Molecule and Ion Receptors” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 117-120.

Berryman, O. B.; Bryantsev, V. S.; Stay, D. P.; Johnson, D. W.; Hay, B. P. “Structural Criteria for the Design of Anion Receptors:  The Interaction of Halides with Electron-Deficient Arenes” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 48-58.

Berryman, O. B.; Hof, F.; Hynes, M. J.; Johnson, D.W. “Anion-π Interaction Augments Halide Binding in Solution” Chem. Commun. 2006, 506-508.

Additional Publications

65.     Gavette, J. V.; Lara, J.; Reling, L. L.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. “Lithium-Selective Phosphine Oxide-Based Ditopic Receptors Show Enhanced Halide Binding upon Alkali           Metal Ion Coordination” Chem. Sci. 2012, in press (DOI:10.1039/C2SC21501B).
64.     Watt, M. M.; Collins, M. S.; Johnson, D. W. “Ion-π Interactions in Ligand Design for Anions and Main Group Cations” Acc. Chem. Res. 2012, Articles ASAP (invited article for           special issue on “Aromatic Interactions” DOI: 10.1021/ar300100g).
63.     Oliveri, A. F.; Carnes, M. E.; Baseman, M. M.; Richman, E. K.; Hutchison, J. E.; Johnson, D. W. “Nanoscale Cluster Speciation Confirmed by DOSY and SAXS” Angew. Chem.           Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 10992-10996.
62.     Engle, J. M.; Carroll, C. N.; Johnson, D. W.; Haley, M. M. “Synthesis of 2,6-Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine Scaffolds as a New Class of Potential Anion Sensors” Chem. Sci.           2012, 3, 1105-1110.
61.     Carnes, M. E.; Lindquist, N. R.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Counter-ion and Steric Effects in Self-Assembled HgX2–Thioether Coordination Polymers” Cryst. Growth           Des. 2012, 12, 1579-1585.
60.     Engle, J. M.; Lakshminarayanan, P. S.; Carroll, C. N.; Zakharov, L. N.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. “Molecular Self Assembly: Solvent Guests Tune the Conformation of a           Series of Versatile 2,6-Bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine-Based Ureas” Cryst. Growth Des. 2011, 11, 5144-5152.
59.     Carnes, M. E.; Lindquist, N. R.; Johnson, D. W. “Main Group Supramolecular Coordination Chemistry” in Encyclopedia of Supramolecular Chemistry; Atwood, J. L.; Steed, J.           W.; Wallace, K. J., Eds.; Taylor and Francis: New York, NY, 2012, in press.
58.     Mensinger, Z. L; Wang, W.; Keszler, D. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Oligomeric Group 13 Hydroxides – A Rare but Varied Class of Molecules” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2012, 41, 1019-1030.
57.     Fontenot, S. A.; Cangelosi, V. M.; Pitt, M. A. W.; Sather, A. C.;† Zakharov, L. N.; Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, D. W. “Design, Synthesis and Characterization of Self-Assembled           As2L3 and Sb2L3 Cryptands” Dalton Trans. 2011, 40, 12125-12131 (invited article for Theme Issue on Self Assembly in Inorganic Chemistry).
56.     Gavette, J. V.; Lara, J.; Berryman, O. B.; Zakharov, L. N.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. “Lithium Cation Enhances Anion Binding in a Phosphine Oxide-Based Tripodal, Ditopic           Receptor” Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 7653-7655.
55.     Haack, J. A.; Berglund, J. A.; Hutchison, J. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Lonergan, M. C.; Tyler, D. R. “Chemistry of sustainability: A general education science course enhancing           students, faculty and institutional programming” J. Chem. Ed. 2011, manuscript submitted.
54.     Wang, W.; Wentz, K.M.; Hayes, S.E.; Johnson, D. W.; Keszler, D. A. “Synthesis of Hydroxide Cluster [Al133-OH)6(μ-OH)18(H2O)24]15+ from Aqueous Solution,” Inorg.           Chem. 2011, 50, 4683–4685.
53.     Carroll, C. N.; Coombs III, B. A.; McClintock, S. P.; Johnson II, C. A.; Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, D. W.; Haley, M. M. “Anion-Dependent Fluorescence in           Bis(anilinoethynyl)pyridine Derivatives: Switchable ON-OFF and OFF-ON Response” Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 5539-5541.
52.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Carter, T. G.; Crossland, J. L.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Self-Assembled E2L3 Cryptands (E = P, As, Sb, Bi): Transmetalation, Homo- and           Heterometallic Assemblies, and Conformational Isomerism” Inorg. Chem. 2010, 49, 9985-9992.
51.     Carroll, C. N.; Naleway, J. J.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. “Arylethynyl Receptors for Anions and Emerging Applications in Cellular Imaging” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2010, 39,           3875-3888 (invited tutorial review for theme issue on “Anions in Supramolecular Chemistry”).
50.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Pitt, M. A.; Vickaryous, W. J.; Allen, C. A.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Design Considerations for the Group 15 Elements: The Pnictogen···π Interaction           as a Complementary Component in Supramolecular Assembly Design” Cryst. Growth Des. 2010, 10, 3531-3536.
49.     Haack, J. A.; Berglund, J. A.; Hutchison, J. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Lonergan, M. C.; Tyler, D. R. “‘Chemistry of Sustainability:’ A General Education Science Course Enhancing           Students, Faculty and Institutional Programming” CONFCHEM, 2010, April-June 2010, Paper 3 (May 21-27: http://www.ched-ccce.org/confchem/2010/Spring2010           /Index.html).
48.     Lindquist, N. R.; Carter, T. G.; Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Three’s Company: Co-crystallization of a Self-Assembled S4 Metallacyclophane with Two           Diastereomeric Metallacycle Intermediates” Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 3505-3507.
47.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.; Crossland, J. L.; Franklin, B. C.; Johnson, D. W. “A Surprising ‘Folded-in’ Conformation of a Self-Assembled Arsenic-Thiolate Macrocycle”           Cryst. Growth Des. 2010, 10, 1471-1473.
46.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Supramolecular Transmetallation Leads to an Unusual Self-Assembled P2L3 Cryptand” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2010,           49, 1248-1251.
45.     Fontenot, S. A.; Carter, T. G.; Johnson, D. W.; Addleman, R. S.; Warner, M. G.; Yantasee, W.; Warner, C. L.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bays, J. T. “Nanostructured Materials for Selective           Collection of Trace-Level Metals from Aqueous Systems” in Trace Analysis with Nanomaterials; Pierce, D. T.; Zhao, J. X., Eds.; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim, Germany, 2010           (ISBN:978-3-527-32350-0).
44.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Carter, T. G.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. "Observation of reaction intermediates and kinetic mistakes in a remarkably slow self-assembly reaction"           Chem. Commun. 2009, 5606-5608.
43.     Johnson, C. A.; Berryman, O. B.; Sather, A. C.; Zakharov, L. N.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. "Anion Binding Induces Helicity in a Hydrogen-Bonding Receptor: Crystal           Structure of a 2,6-Bis(anilinoethynyl)pyridinium Chloride" Cryst. Growth Des. 2009, 9, 4247-4249.
42.     Allen, C. A.; Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. "Supramolecular Organization Using Multiple Secondary Bonding Interactions" Cryst. Growth Des. 2009, 9,           3011-3013.
41.     Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, D. W. "Experimental evidence for interactions between anions and electron-deficient aromatic rings" Chem. Commun. 2009, 22, 3143-3153.
40.     Carroll C. N.; Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Zakharov, L. N.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. "Protonation activates anion binding and alters binding selectivity in new           inherently fluorescent 2,6-bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine bisureas" Chem. Commun. 2009, 2520-2522.
39.     Mensinger, Z. L.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. "Synthesis and Crystallization of Infinite Indium and Gallium Acetate 1D Chain Structures and Concomitant Ethyl Acetate           Hydrolysis" Inorg. Chem. 2009, 3505-3507.
38.     Carter, T. G.; Yantasee, W.; Sangvanich, T.; Fryxell, G. E.; Johnson, D. W.; Addleman, R. S. "New Functional Materials for Heavy Metal Sorption: 'Supramolecular'           Attachment of Thiols to Mesoporous Silica Substrates" Chem. Commun. 2008, 5583-5585.
37.     Mensinger, Z. L.; Gatlin, J. T.; Meyers, S. T.; Zakharov, L. N.; Keszler, D. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Heterometallic Group 13 Nanocluster Synthesis and Inks for Oxide Thin-film           Transistors" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 9484-9486.
36.     Pitt, M. A.; Zakharov, L. N.; Vanka, K.; Thompson, W. H.; Laird, B. B.; Johnson, D. W. "Multiple weak supramolecular interactions stabilize a surprisingly twisted As2L3           assembly" Chem. Commun. 2008, 33, 3936-3938.
35.     Berryman, O. B.; Sather, A. C.; Hay, B. P.; Meisner, J. S.; Johnson, D. W. "Solution Phase Measurement of Both Weak .sigma. and C-HX- Hydrogen Bonding Interactions           in Synthetic Anion Receptors" J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 10895-10897.
34.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Zakharov, L. N.; Fontenot, S. A.; Pitt, M. A.; Johnson, D. W. "Host-guest Interactions in a Series of Self-assembled As2L2Cl2 Macrocycles" Dalton Trans.           2008, 26, 3447-3453.
33.     Mensinger, Z. L.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. "Triammonium hexahydroxidooctadecaoxidohexamolybdogallate(III) heptahydrate" Acta Cryst. 2008, E64(2), i8-i9,           i8/1-i8/13.
32.     Gatlin, J. T.; Mensinger, Z. L.; Zakharov, L. N.; MacInnes, D.; Johnson, D. W.. "Facile Synthesis of the Tridecameric Al13 Nanocluster Al133-OH)6(µ-OH)18(H2O)24           (NO3)15" Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47(4), 1267-1269.
31.     Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, C. A., II; Zakharov, L. N.; Haley, M. M.; Johnson, D. W. "Water and Hydrogen Halides Serve the Same Structural Role in a Series of 2 + 2           Hydrogen-bonded Dimers based on 2,6-bis(2-anilinoethynyl)pyridine Sulfonamide Receptors" Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47(1), 117-120.
30.     Carter, T. G., Vickaryous, W. J.; Cangelosi, V. M.; Johnson, D. W. “Supramolecular Arsenic Coordination Chemistry” Comm. Inorg. Chem. 2007, 28, 97-122 (invited           review).
29.     Cangelosi, V. M.; Sather, A. C.; Zakharov, Z. N.; Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, D. W. “Diastereoselectivity in the Self-Assembly of As2L2Cl2 Macrocycles is Directed by the           As-π Interaction” Inorg. Chem. 2007, 46, 9278-9284.
28.     Meisner, J. S.; Berryman, O. B.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Methyl 4-bromo-3,5-dinitro-benzoate” Acta. Cryst. 2007, E63, o2466.
27.     Pitt, M. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Main Group Supramolecular Chemistry” Chem. Soc. Rev. 2007, 36, 1441-1453 (invited review).
26.     Vickaryous, W. J.; Zakharov, L. N.; Johnson, D. W. “Self-Assembled Antimony-Thiolate Sb2L3 and Sb2L2Cl2 Complexes” Main Group Chem. 2006, 5, 51-59.
25.     Berryman, O. B.; Bryantsev, V. S.; Stay, D. P.; Johnson, D. W.; Hay, B. P. “Structural Criteria for the Design of Anion Receptors: The Interaction of Halides with Electron-           Deficient Arenes” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 48-58.
24.     Healey, E. R.; Vickaryous, W. J.; Berryman, O. B., Johnson, D. W. “Self-Assembled Supramolecular Main Group Coordination Complexes” in BOTTOM-UP           NANOFABRICATION: Supramolecules, Self-Assemblies, and Organized Films; Ariga, K., Nalwa, H. S., Eds.; American Scientific Publishers: Stevenson Ranch, 2007           (ISBN: 1-58883-079-9).
23.     Berryman, O. B.; Hof, F.; Hynes, M. J.; Johnson, D. W. “Anion-π Interaction Augments Halide Binding in Solution” Chem. Commun. 2006, 506-508.
22.     Carter, T. G.; Rather Healey, E.; Pitt, M. A.; Johnson, D. W. “Secondary Arsenic-Oxygen Interactions in Arsenic-Thiolate Coordination Complexes” Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44,           9634-9636.
21.     Vickaryous, W. J.; Rather Healey, E.; Berryman, O. B.; Johnson, D. W. “Synthesis and Characterization of Two Isomeric, Self-Assembled Arsenic-Thiolate Macrocycles”           Inorg. Chem. 2005, 44, 9247-9252.
20.     Rather, E.; Gatlin, J. T.; Nixon, P. G.; Tsukamoto, T.; Kravtsov, V.; Johnson, D. W. “A Simple Organic Reaction Mediates the Crystallization of the Inorganic Nanocluster           [Ga133-OH)6(µ-OH)18(H2O)24](NO3)15” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 3242-3243. (Highlighted in Editor’s Choice in Science, 2005, 307, 1377.)
19.     Vickaryous, W. J.; Herges, R.; Johnson, D. W. “Arsenic-π Interactions Stabilize a Self-Assembled As2L3  Supramolecular Complex” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 5831-           5833.  (Highlighted in the following: The Oregonian, Nov. 24, 2004 in the Research Notebook section; The Register-Guard Dec. 1, 2004, “Duo create molecular trap for           arsenic”; Northwest Science and Technology, Spring 2005; www.innovations-report.com; www.physorg.com/news; nanotech-now.com/news; www.sciencedaily.com,           www.uoregon.edu/newscenter/)

Publications prior to arrival at UO:
18.     Pluth, M. D.; Johnson, D. W.; Szigethy, G.; Davis, A. V.; Teat, S. J.; Oliver, A. G.; Bergman, R. G.; Raymond, K. N. “Structural Consequences of Anionic Host-Cationic           Guest Interactions in a Supramolecular Assembly” Inorg. Chem. 2009, 48, 111-120.
17.     Johnson, D. W.; Hof, F.; Palmer, L. C.; Martín, T.; Obst U.; Rebek, J., Jr. “Glycoluril Ribbons Tethered by Complementary Hydrogen Bonds.” Chem. Commun. 2003,           1638-1639.
16.     Ziegler, M.; Davis, A. V.; Johnson, D. W.; Raymond, K. N. “Supramolecular Chirality: A Reporter of Structural Memory.” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 665-668.           (Chemical and Engineering News, Feb. 17, 2003; Vol. 81, No. 7, 16.)
15.     Johnson, D. W.; Iovine, P. M.; Hof, F.; Palmer, L. C.; Rebek, J., Jr.  “New Supramolecular Organization for a Glycoluril: Chiral Hydrogen-Bonded Ribbons.” Chem.           Commun. 2002, 2228-2229.
14.     Johnson, D. W.; Hof, F.; Iovine, P. M.; Nuckolls, C.; Rebek, J., Jr.  “Solid State and Solution Structure of a Tetrameric Capsule and its Guests.” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.           2002, 41, 3793-3796.
13.     Amrhein, P.; Shivanyuk, A.; Johnson, D. W.; Rebek, J., Jr.  “Metal-Switched Cavitands.”  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 10349-10358.
12.     Hof, F.; Iovine, P. M.; Johnson, D. W.; Rebek, J., Jr.  “Highly Selective Synthesis of Heterosubstituted Aromatic Sulfamides.”  Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 4247-4249.
11.     Sun, X.; Johnson, D. W.; Raymond, K. N.; Wong, E. H. “A Silver-linked Supramolecular Cluster Encapsulating a Cesium Cation.”  Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 4504-4506.
10.     Johnson, D. W.; Raymond, K. N. “The Role of Guest Molecules in the Self-Assembly of Metal-Ligand Clusters.”  Supramol. Chem. 2001, 13, 639-659.
9.      Johnson, D. W.; Raymond, K. N. “The Self-Assembly of a Ga4L6 Tetrahedral Cluster Thermodynamically Driven by Host-Guest Interactions.”  Inorg. Chem. 2001, 40, 5157-           5161.
8.      Yeh, R. M.; Ziegler, M.; Johnson, D. W.; Terpin, A. J.; Raymond, K. N. “Complete Determination of Chirality in a Supramolecular Helicate by Chiral Induction.”  Inorg. Chem.           2001, 40, 2216-2217.
7.      Sun, X.; Johnson, D. W.; Caulder, D. L.; Raymond, K. N.; Wong, E. H.  “Rational Design and Assembly of M2M'3L6 Supramolecular Clusters with C3h Symmetry by           Exploiting Incommensurate Symmetry Numbers.”  J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 2752-2763.
6.      Ziegler, M.; Miranda, J. J.; Norklit-Andersen, U.; Johnson, D. W.; Leary, J. A.; Raymond, K. N.  “Combinatorial Libraries of Metal-Ligand Assemblies with an Encapsulated           Guest Molecule.”  Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 733-736.
5.      Terpin, A. J.; Ziegler, M.; Johnson, D. W.; Raymond, K. N.  “Resolution and Kinetic Stability of a Chiral Supramolecular Assembly Made of Labile Components.” Angew.           Chem. Int. Ed. 2001, 40, 157-160.
4.      Johnson, D. W.; Xu, J.; Saalfrank, R. W.; Raymond, K. N.  “Self-Assembly of a Three-Dimensional [Ga6(L2)6] Metal-Ligand 'Cylinder.'”  Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38,           2882-2885.
3.      Scherer, M.; Caulder, D. L.; Johnson, D. W.; Raymond, K. N.  “Triple Helicate - Tetrahedral Cluster Interconversion Controlled by Host-Guest Interactions.” Angew. Chem.           Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 1588-1592.
2.      Sun, X.; Johnson, D. W.; Caulder, D. L.; Powers, R. E.; Raymond, K. N.; Wong, E. H. “Exploiting Incommensurate Symmetry Numbers: Rational Design and Assembly of           M2M'3L6 Supramolecular Clusters with C3h Symmetry.”  Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 1303-1307.
1.      Sessler, J. L.; Hoehner, M. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Gebauer, A.; Lynch, V. "Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Three-Dimensional Oligopyrrole: Tris(bipyrro)methane."           Chem. Commun. 1996, 2311-2312.